Almost every carrier of this disease has to deal with varicose vein removal. Even at an early stage of the disease, vessels appear that cannot be restored using conservative methods. Then patients start thinking about how to remove varicose veins from their legs permanently. Unfortunately, surgery will not be able to completely stop the progression of the disease. To stop the disease, you will need to adjust your lifestyle and take care of the vessels. By removing varicose veins, doctors achieve a noticeable improvement in the patient's condition: edema, pain, heaviness in the legs disappear.
Indications for surgery
Varicose vein removal is not indicated for all patients. Of course, there are women and men who are not happy with vascular bumps under the skin. They prefer to remove veins for aesthetic reasons. But most patients do not decide for themselves this step, but are sent for surgery by a doctor. Indications for surgery are as follows:
- severe swelling of the limbs;
- change in tissue color and structure;
- occurrence of non-healing trophic ulcers;
- regular exacerbations of thrombophlebitis;
- a strong increase in safene veins;
- limb pain.
Despite the fact that many patients are afraid of this operation, it is not at all harmful to the body. If the surgical intervention is performed using modern instruments and techniques, the patient will recover very quickly. Of course, vein removal is prescribed if the medication treatment does not work at all.
Who orders the operation?
Direction for surgery is given by the phlebologist, but the vascular surgeon is specifically involved in developing a plan for the surgical treatment of varicose veins. He carefully examines the patient, assesses the condition of the venous valves using hardware research methods. If the external veins are affected, radiofrequency ablation or sclerotherapy may be performed. With deep varicose veins, phlebectomy will be required.
How much does an operation to treat varicose veins cost?
Surgical intervention is performed in a day hospital or in a specialized department of vascular surgery. In state institutions, if there is a recommendation from the attending physician, the operation is free. The cost of surgical treatment of varicose veins in private clinics varies. There is no maximum cost bar as hospitals offer a wide range of services.
Despite the fact that varicose vein removal is considered a universal method of treating the disease, not everyone can undergo the procedure. Contraindicated in some categories of patients due to the tendency to bleeding and thrombosis. With coronary heart disease and a recent stroke, the veins should not be removed. This will increase stress on the cardiovascular system. The patient must first recover and then undergo a second examination. The list of contraindications for surgery includes:
- grade 3 and 4 hypertension;
- II and III trimesters of pregnancy;
- the presence of inflammation in the foot, including eczema;
- infectious lesions of the limbs;
- age over 70 years (requires a thorough examination of the health condition);
- damage to the deep veins of the extremities (consultation with several surgeons is necessary and removal of the altered vessel, if possible).
How to prepare for surgery?
A few days before surgical treatment of varicose veins, the patient should undergo general and biochemical tests. The tendency of the blood to form blood clots should be controlled. If all goes well, then you will not need to do any more tests. On the morning of the operation, you should take a shower, remove excess vegetation from the leg to be operated on. Also, preoperative preparation before varicose vein removal includes:
- testing the patient for sensitivity to pain relievers and anesthetics;
- check the ultrasound examination.
On the eve before surgery, it is advisable to limit yourself to a light dinner. It is better not to drink 3-4 before surgery. There are also some contraindications, depending on the type of anesthesia the doctor decides to use.
Types of operations
Varicose vein surgery for varicose veins is currently possible. All patients who decide to undergo surgery should be aware of this. Today, doctors are developing a way to eliminate varicose veins while preserving the saphenous vein. The main problem with this technique is that it is not suitable for all patients. Surgical intervention on a group of volunteers showed that it would not be possible to preserve the vessel with advanced varicose veins.
With the help of several methods, you can remove varicose veins in parts, d. m. th. cutting the affected vein and suturing its healthy areas together. But this approach to treating the disease must be approved by the vascular surgeon, as not all patients have veins that can heal normally. Most often, the following methods of varicose vein removal are used in surgical practice:
- mini phlebectomy;
- disappearance of radio frequency;
- laser coagulation.
This procedure is the removal of the saphenous veins. With krytectomy, all the branches of the vein are initially connected, and then stopped. The ship is removed along with the branches. Cutting is done in two places. This technique is used to operate on patients at risk of thrombosis.
The difference between this operation and the classic one is that drilling is done on the surface of the feet instead of incisions. Surgery is less traumatic for the patient, but there are some disadvantages. Not all veins can be removed through drilling, and not all patients have it. If the patient has an extensive network of capillaries or vessels, then this method cannot be used.
This surgical method is considered minimally invasive. During the operation, only the affected part of the vein is removed, and the vessel remains completely. All manipulations are performed through a small skin puncture. Stripping is often part of phlebectomy. The cuts themselves are delicate. Their length rarely exceeds 1 cm. The advantages of this technique include a short recovery period. After 2 weeks, the patient can return to his normal way of life.
This procedure consists of injecting a specialized sclerosing substance into the affected vessel. The affected vein joins, blood flow stops, varicose veins recede. This operation is performed if it is necessary to eliminate vessels of small length and diameter. Sclerosant cannot blind large veins. After a while, they return and blood begins to circulate through them again.
Disappearance of radiofrequency
This method was developed as a replacement for classical vascular surgery. The technique consists in the fact that a radio frequency directed wave acts on the walls of the vessel, sealing it. After a while, the blood clot is eliminated and blood flow is normalized. Before starting the treatment of the veins, the following parameters are entered in the device:
- vein diameter;
- required level of warm exposure.
This approach to surgery allows you to completely eliminate damage to surrounding tissues and adjacent vessels. Available materials are used for the operation. When the operation is complete, the pierces are disinfected and, if necessary, closed (if the bleeding does not stop). The patient can go home 4-5 hours after surgery.
This method of removing varicose veins is considered the most modern and least traumatic. Doctors do not make tissue incisions, so patients may not worry about the aesthetic component of the feet. The skin is pierced in a certain place. A laser light guide is inserted through the hole, which evaporates the damaged container. One of the advantages of laser coagulation is the low number of recurrences. Only 5% of patients require re-vascular removal after laser treatment.
How is the operation performed?
The first step in any surgery is numbing the surgical site. Epidural anesthesia for varicose veins is indicated if the area to be treated is large. The patient will be constantly awake, but motor activity will be completely incapacitated. If you need to remove only a small vein, then apply a bandage or local anesthetic. The further sequence of actions depends on the type of operation being performed. The general scheme of surgical intervention is as follows:
- Prior to surgery, the vessels are isolated, which must be removed.
- The doctor makes an incision at the base of the vein.
- Special equipment is inserted through the hole or some additional incisions are made along the entire length of the vein.
- Ships are locked or allowed and taken out.
- Places where the vein was connected to other vessels shut.
Healing after surgery
The characteristics of rehabilitation after removal of a leg vein with varicose veins depend on the body of a particular patient and the type of surgical intervention. Immediately after all manipulations are completed, the elastic bandages will be fixed to the foot. They can not be removed for several hours. By the end of the postoperative period after varicose veins, the patient should adhere to the following recommendations:
- Wear compression garments at all times. During the first weeks after surgery, it should not be removed, even before bedtime.
- Do not lift weights over 10 kg.
- Take venotonic medication daily.
- Come for exams on the set dates.
- I do gymnastics.
- Do not take hot baths, do not visit baths and saunas.
Gentle massage can speed up foot recovery. It is not necessary to go to a specialist for it. You can independently massage the feet with light pressure movements. Permission for other restorative procedures must be given by a physician.
Possible complications after surgery
After surgery, some patients experience negative consequences. Complications develop in people with a genetic predisposition to thrombosis and blood clotting problems. It is normal to have bruising and bruising if it has passed up to 1 month after surgery. The most common complications are:
- loss of sensation in the legs due to nerve damage during surgery;
- profuse bleeding;
- painful swelling of the foot at the site of surgery;
- numbness in the lower leg;
- the appearance of pus in hematomas.
Seroma after treatment of varicose veins develops more often due to the genetic tendency of the patient's capillaries to accumulate lymph. Despite its not very unacceptable appearance, this juice is not dangerous for the patient. In about 90% of cases, it is digested on its own, and only 10% of patients have to inhale it. Care for suturing the serum is the same as for normal skin lesions.
Lifestyle after surgery
Removal of varicose veins in the legs without consequences is done for 96% of patients. The first few days you may have mild pain, but then they will disappear. The patient should exclude fatty and unhealthy foods from his diet. After surgery, the patient's main task, in addition to healing, is to keep the veins in good condition. This requires:
- to give up bad habits;
- observe a regime of rest and work (even at work and even if you constantly have to stand / sit, do not forget about a warm-up);
- reduce caffeine intake;
- monitor attitude;
- maintain a normal body mass index;
- choose comfortable shoes and clothes.
The first place is taken by gymnastics in the morning and in the evening of the legs. Exercises in this group will help relieve fatigue from the legs, strengthen blood vessels, ligaments, tendons. You should also introduce daily walks in the fresh air. Ideally, a person should walk at least 8 km per day. If you find it difficult to cover such a distance right away or do not have enough time, then you can reduce it to 3 km.