In most people, varicose veins are mostly associated with large painful blue and purple joints that disfigure the legs of both sexes. But what looks so ugly is an already developed, even neglected disease. The early stages of the disease are virtually invisible to others and are often not taken seriously by the patients themselves.
But it is extremely dangerous not to react to pain, swelling and even more so to the "stars" of blood vessels, since the disease is severe, does not pass by itself, but threatens the development of dangerous complications. If the disease starts, not only ugly joints will appear on the feet. Violations of venous flow will cause irreversible consequences in the tissues, which will lead to the formation of trophic ulcers. This is a serious and painful disorder that is very difficult to cure.
If the disease progresses, the blood supply to the lower extremities will constantly deteriorate. This will lead to the fact that the tissues will no longer receive the required amount of oxygen and nutrients, as the vessels will become clogged, twisted and cease to perform their functions. The result will be severe problem, including tissue death and the development of gangrene. And that is amputation and disability. So varicose veins require an attentive attitude and quick response. Only in the case of an early start of correct treatment will it be possible to avoid not only severe consequences, but also to get rid of the ugly and intrusive swollen veins in the legs.
Causes of varicose veins of the legs
There are many reasons and factors that can cause the development of varicose veins.
There are many reasons why varicose veins develop in the legs. But basically the impetus for the development of the disease is a variety of causes such as work with constant standing, hereditary predisposition or love for uncomfortable shoes with high heels.
The real reason for the formation of varicose veins is a violation of venous flow. In the human body, blood circulates, that is, constantly moves through the circulatory system. Entering the lower extremities, the blood can no longer return on its own, it needs a "pump". Its role is played by special venous valves.
If they begin to cope poorly with their tasks, then the so-called reflux occurs - a backflow of blood due to valve failure. Such violations are provoked by problems with the physiological balance between muscle cells, the elastic fibers of the walls of blood vessels, and collagen. When blood returns, it penetrates the tissues, leading to the formation of chronic venous insufficiency.
In this case, edema appears and then, as the blood components penetrate into the tissue, fluid stagnation (stasis) occurs and the microcirculation is disturbed. The cells gradually die, and a trophic ulcer appears at the site of blood accumulation. These are long-term non-healing, painful tissue defects that open the door to infection and the emergence of even more dangerous health problems.
The first signs, stages and their symptoms
The symptomatology of varicose veins is directly related to its stages.
In terms of prevalence, varicose veins can be considered as one of the most common diseases. He has been known since ancient times, that there is not only documentary evidence, but also material. In Egypt, a mummy was found with traces of varicose veins and apparently repeatedly treated trophic ulcers.
The disease affects both men and women, but is more common in women. The main reason for the change is that women give birth and wear high heels and spend more and more time walking.
Varicose veins can develop in youth, often caused by pregnancy and childbirth, when there is a high load on the venous system due to fetal growth and pressure, and then after childbirth stress.
At first, the symptoms of the disease are difficult to distinguish, they are difficult to distinguish from other problems.
Minor pain in calves is usually noted first, especially after walking, which is often attributed to normal fatigue. The patient may complain that he gets tired quickly, can not walk long distances as before. He suffers from convulsions, burning sensations, bloating, often intensified at night, in the evening there is swelling, a severe feeling, feet "filled with bullets".
Most often, at this stage, patients do not go to the doctor, attributing the uncomfortable sensations to uncomfortable shoes, heavy foot load, heat and fatigue. But the disease can progress for years and even decades, until the situation worsens so much that the blue veins that protrude under the skin become visible or vascular "stars" appear. And even the presence of such symptoms and pain, clearly directed along the course of the veins, does not always force the patient to seek medical help.
There are many methods of classifying the disease, but the most commonly used is phasing:
- First- defeat of a small number of vessels, mainly in the lower part of the legs, with complaints of pain, fatigue, slight appearance of the pattern of veins. The treatment started at this stage is particularly effective.
- Second- increase in symptoms of impaired venous flow: edema, fluid retention, the appearance of mild pain in the calves and legs. A common symptom is extreme fatigue towards the end of the work day.
- The third- development of venous valve failure. The formation of twisted, twisted veins, severe swelling, change in skin color towards cyanosis, an obvious tendency for the formation of trophic ulcers. A characteristic feature is the appearance of pain even with slight physical strain on the legs.
- Fourth- visible convex veins, blue-blue under the skin, the formation of joints that make the skin of the extremities stamped, the presence of non-healing trophic ulcers. At this stage, only urgent surgical intervention can help.
It is necessary to treat varicose veins as soon as possible, and not to use self-activity, but be sure to seek help from a specialist - a phlebologist. He will assess the condition of the vessels, diagnose and prescribe the appropriate treatment. Most often it is combined, including different methods of influence.
Diagnosis of the disease
In the early stages, it may be impossible to detect varicose veins in the legs by visual methods. Duplex sonography of the vessels of the lower extremities is considered the best method. Allows you to get a complete picture of the condition of the leg veins, including the deep ones, to assess the level of blood flow, does not cause discomfort or pain to the patient and also contributes to the correct choice and prescription of the optimal method of treatment.
For the treatment of varicose veins in the early stages, special creams, oils and tablets are used.
The main threat that varicose veins carry with them is thrombophlebitis, i. e. an inflammatory process in the walls of blood vessels. With it, the risk of thrombosis increases significantly, and a thrombus is already a direct threat not only to the health but also to the life of the patient. A "detached" blood clot can migrate to vital organs and cause potentially fatal conditions such as pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, or stroke.
In the initial stages of the disease, combination therapy is used, based mainly on the use of special drugs - venotonics and compression products. The main drugs are medicines that help dilute the blood and prevent the formation of blood clots, tone and strengthen blood vessels, improve blood circulation.
Compression therapy involves the use of special elastic bandages and compression stockings - socks, stockings, socks and tights.
They should be chosen by a doctor, depending on the degree of development of the disease. In the initial stages, prophylactic pressure stockings are most often used. High-quality exterior medical products do not differ in any way from special knitted garments, so they can be worn every day. They are especially recommended for women who spend most of the day on foot - salesmen, hairdressers, teachers.
Traditional methods for the disease
Traditional medicine treats varicose veins in the legs in the following ways:
- Green tomato compresses. This seemingly bizarre remedy helps perfectly to relieve inflammation, vascular swelling and edema. Unripe tomatoes cut into rings are applied to the sore spot overnight and removed in the morning.
- Horse chestnut tincture.This herb is widely used to treat venous problems, so it can also be made at home. Rubbing the feet with tincture relieves pain and swelling, tones and strengthens veins.
- Gingko biloba- an antique tree with interesting triangular leaves. Its leaves are used as a very effective medicine for improving blood circulation and strengthening the walls of blood vessels.
You can fight the manifestations of varicose veins with the help of various herbal preparations, but it is best to consult your doctor first.
The essence of the operation is bandaging and removal of pathologically altered veins.
Surgical procedures for varicose veins are a common occurrence, as the developed disease can not be cured only by conservative methods.
The following surgical techniques are most commonly used:
- Phlebectomy,or removal of affected veins.
- Laser coagulation- a modern method of exterminating (blocking) diseased vessels using a directed laser beam. Over time, the vessel ceases to function, is sclerosed and digested. The technique is considered sparing, as it does not require incision, hospitalization and a long recovery period. The procedure has an excellent cosmetic effect.
- Radiofrequency coagulation- a way to eliminate reflux into the large or small saphenous vein. In terms of effectiveness, it is comparable to phlebectomy, but does not require a rehabilitation period and is easier to tolerate by patients.
- Scleotherapy.A method in which a particular drug is injected into a vein under the control of an ultrasound device, leading to venous adhesion.
Anticipation of treatment and possible complications
Varicose veins in the legs are a serious disease that can easily lead to very dangerous complications. The main risk is the development of thrombosis, due to which the whole body can be affected. The rupture and migration of a blood clot threatens a person with sudden death, as a blood clot that enters vital organs and blocks a vessel with it can easily cause a stroke, heart attack or embolism.
Varicose veins can cause disability.
The second terrible threat that varicose veins bring with it is deprivation of mobility and disability. If the disease is not treated, it can lead to the development of complete blockage of the veins in the leg, in which gangrene will develop and doctors will have no other option to save the patient's life other than amputation of one limb or both legs. .
Such dire consequences can only be prevented by timely access to medical care and strict adherence to medical prescriptions. Timely treatment allows you to save yourself from terrible complications and maintain the health and beauty of your feet.
Prevention is essential to prevent disease. These simple rules are constantly repeated by doctors, but most people stubbornly ignore them until the vein problem affects them personally.
Preventive measures to prevent varicose veins are as follows:
- Moderate physical activity. For vascular health, both overload and passive lowering in stationary positions, which cause blood stasis in the lower extremities, are equally harmful.
- Quitting bad habits - smoking and drinking alcohol. They have an extremely negative effect on the condition of the veins.
- Wear comfortable shoes with medium heels, no more than 5-6 cm high.
- Use of prophylactic compression stockings, if necessary, in case of "standing" work or loaded inheritance, during pregnancy and childbirth.
- Fighting excess weight. Considerable body weight is one of the factors contributing to the development of varicose veins.
Following these simple rules will help keep your veins strong and healthy, and your legs beautiful and slim.