Everything about varicose veins: risk factors, symptoms, treatment, prevention

Diseases of the veins of the lower extremities are life-threatening. Treatment of varicose veins can not be left for later. Modern medicine copes with the development of the disease.

What is varicose veins

Blood stasis can form in the lower parts of the body. This is due to the movement of blood flow throughout the body. In the arteries, they move from top to bottom. In venous vessels - from the bottom up, which is much more difficult due to the laws of physics. In order for the flow to increase efficiently from below, by nature a person received a capillary valve. It works through the movement of the leg muscles. They are shrinking. This forces the blood flow upwards.

varicose veins in the legs

Varicose veins are a disease that results in a change in vascular structure, its extension, and the appearance of joints. As a result, the valve mechanism does not work well and is unable to close completely. A large amount of blood rushes to the damaged vessel, without "pushing" its excessive accumulation and inflammation of the site occurs. Blood clots form.

Due to human anatomy, the standing vessels, in the region of the pelvic organs, receive the main load. Oesophageal veins may be affected.

Varicose veins are a known disease for a long time. From history, doctors learned that the description of symptoms, the first attempts to treat the disease, date back to the times of Hippocrates's life. Both women and men suffer from the disease. The weaker sex faces the first symptoms of the disease more often than the strong. Acute forms end up in hospital, disability.

Couperose is a type of varicose veins on the face. Blood blocks the veins in the neck. Intradermal manifestations are not dangerous, but they signal the onset of problems in the vessels. There is a disease of the eyes, larynx, neck, fingers, shoulder. Ocular manifestation threatens vision problems. Dilation of blood vessels in the oral cavity, dilation of veins in the neck, arms leads to aesthetic, physical problems.

Symptoms of varicose veins

The first signs of the disease may go unnoticed. The feet can swell in the lower leg area, there is a light weight, especially at the end of the day. The contours of the veins are hidden from view or not visually enlarged. This is the insidiousness of varicose veins. Treatment is recommended to start at an early stage, but most people do not pay attention to edema and severity.

Patients seek help at a time when visual symptoms in the form of swollen dark veins begin to appear in the body. At a later stage, other manifestations of varicose veins are added:

  • The legs get tired quickly. The peak of fatigue is in the evening.
  • The sting is getting worse. May be associated with pain syndrome.
  • Periodic cramps appear in the muscles of the lower extremities.
  • One person notices that so-called cyanotic stars have appeared on the feet - the areas of the veins become noticeably darker, localized to certain areas of the skin. The veins swell, swell, swell.
  • Areas of skin are irritated, prone to ulcers, eczema.
manifestations of varicose veins in the legs

The International Classification of Diseases identifies 6 stages. Phlebologists, after gathering information of a clinical nature, conducting the necessary research, diagnose the patient with varicose veins. Be sure to indicate the stage of disease development by classification:

  1. The so-called zero phase. Only the primary symptoms appear in the form of severe leg, minimal swelling.
  2. The first spider veins begin to appear.
  3. The veins dilate, begin to emerge on the surface of the skin.
  4. The swelling of the legs increases, the pain syndrome joins.
  5. The skin of the feet changes its color. It becomes brown.
  6. Stage when varicose veins are considered neglected. Characterized by the appearance of ulcerative manifestations, burning sensation, the veins are strongly swollen.
  7. Trophic ulcers form. There is a risk of bleeding as a result of rupture.

To confirm the diagnosis, phlebologists are prescribed to do special tests using a tunic.

People who lead the wrong lifestyle start to feel the first signs of varicose veins in the early years. With age, without treatment, disease progression cannot be avoided.

Risk factors for the development of varicose veins

Varicose veins in the legs are a disease, the predisposition to which is inherited. If a person has a family history of varicose veins, there is a risk of weakening the walls of the venous vessels. There are other factors that affect the onset, development of the disease, including those without genetic predisposition:

  • Sedentary lifestyle. Without movement, it is harder for the muscles to "push" the blood up.
  • Varicose veins are less commonly found in men than in women. They are more likely to suffer from inflammation of the vein in the groin.
  • The work in which a person stands constantly remains motionless.
  • Strong physical activity with lifting heavy weights.
  • Inappropriate shoes. Wearing heels.
  • With age, the risk of developing varicose veins increases.
  • Frequent pregnancies.
  • Smoking, alcohol abuse.
  • Movement restraint, uncomfortable clothing, large.
  • Frequent washing in a hot bath, steam bath.
  • Large body weight.
  • Poor, unhealthy food.
  • Frequent constipation.
a sedentary lifestyle due to the development of varicose veins

There are many factors that make the disease progress. Without a health check, a person risks serious vein problems.

Age and work

A child, a teenager, faced with varicose veins, needs urgent treatment. The reasons for the development of the disease at this age are as follows:

  • congenital diseases;
  • infection;
  • pathology of the foot structure;

The characteristic symptoms of the disease at an early age have their own characteristics and differ from the symptoms of the disease in adults. The disease begins to appear with a superficial change in the skin of the hands, feet, nets, thickening appears. It can be acute or long-term. As the child grows, the lower extremities are transformed. The risk of developing thrombophlebitis is possible. Then the skin of the hands is affected by the disease.

The disease will not go away on its own. The prognosis is favorable, without complications, only with treatment. It is impossible to prevent the formation of active pathogenesis by folk remedies. The consequence will be the transition of the disease to a chronic form.

In adults, the vessels become less elastic. Blood streams collect in hard-to-reach places, dilating blood vessels. The valve stops functioning properly and the inflammatory process begins.

Work associated with prolonged sitting or constant static stay in a place is an unfavorable factor. As a result of the lack of constant blood movement, it is more difficult to get up. The vascular valve begins to be consumed. A person gets the first signs of developing varicose veins.


At the first manifestations of varicose veins, the doctor prescribes a lifestyle adjustment of the patient. Lifetime recommendations. This will slow down the development of varicose veins:

  • It is necessary to give up the tight and tight veins in the legs of clothing. It should not interfere with the normal movement of blood in the body.
  • It is forbidden to sit cross-legged, bend under you, squeeze the knee area. This provokes the appearance of blood clots.
  • Minimize skin exposure to high temperatures. Hot bath, sauna, forbidden bath. A contrast shower is recommended.
  • Prolonged exposure to the sun is not allowed.
  • Minimize heavy lifting. If this is not possible, wear compression footwear.
  • Different types of body hair removal, where heating is taking place, are prohibited. These include electrolysis, hair removal with hot wax.
  • Drink a minimal amount of liquid. On average 2 liters. Rates depend on weight, lifestyle. Tea, coffee, juices are not juices that replenish the body's water reserves. They are not taken into account.
  • Diet and food. Eating fiber is essential to prevent constipation. The diet should contain foods that contain ascorbic acid, vitamin E and vitamin P.
  • To help blood flow from the lower extremities during the day. Just raise your legs above your head for 30 minutes. For convenience, use a sofa. Sleep is recommended with a roller under the feet. This improves blood flow.
  • Monitor your weight. The extra pounds put pressure on the lower limbs, the blood vessels. This stimulates the development of congestion, inflammation in the veins.
  • Do a special massage.
foot massage for varicose veins

Varicose veins are a long-term disease. The development of varicose veins is prevented by observing the basic rules of living with a disease.

Hormone therapy

Only a gynecologist can prescribe hormonal treatment, choose contraceptives for the weaker sex. If a female patient is suspected of having varicose veins, she is referred for a consultation with a phlebologist and the necessary tests. This is due to the fact that some hormones cause vasodilation and increase blood pressure. Estrogen is a popular ingredient in female pills. Its excess in the body leads to a strong blood clot. Passing through the veins is difficult. Blood clots and inflammatory processes appear.

Without medical supervision, prescribing hormone therapy is dangerous for a woman.

How to treat varicose veins

Before prescribing treatment, the doctor performs diagnostics and identifies the stage of the disease. Methods of treating varicose veins can be combined with each other:

  • Ointments, lotions, lifestyle adjustments, the introduction of a gentle physical activity. Treatment will be effective in the early stages of the disease.
  • Traditional methods of treating varicose veins at home are shown in the first manifestations of the disease. Further, they can be used in combination with the main method of combating the disease, which is chosen by the doctor.
  • Scleotherapy. The method is based on removing the affected vein without surgery. This is achieved by inserting a special medicine that sticks the walls of the container together. Blood flow to this area stops and is distributed to healthy veins. The effect of the procedure is long-term, sometimes eternal. It is difficult to achieve complete recovery in advanced stages.
  • Coagulation. The treatment method allows you to remove the affected vein with a laser. This procedure equates in degree of effectiveness with surgical incision of the vessel. Not used in advanced cases.
  • In the later stages of the disease, when ulcers appear, eczema, a surgical method of treatment is used. Cutting the affected container occurs with a small incision. The operation leaves no marks, marks. Repetitions may occur.
the phlebologist treats varicose veins in the legs

Doctors recommend not to delay the treatment of leg veins. In the initial stages, simple methods can be disseminated. This will keep you healthy.

Physical exercises

Varicose veins in the legs do not exclude physical activity. Doctors recommend practicing the exercises and sports allowed for:

  • improving blood flow to the extremities;
  • strengthening of blood vessels;
  • strengthening overall health.

There are basic rules for treating an allowed varicose vein dispute. Compliance with them is mandatory:

  • Remember to drink water during class. The body loses a lot of fluids. From this comes the thickening of the blood.
  • The muscles of the upper torso are allowed to train without significant restrictions. The exception is lifting weights from the standing position.
  • Do the exercises preferably while sitting or lying down.
  • If possible, use compression stockings for training.

Sports are divided into allowed, acceptable with restrictions, forbidden. Those that are indicated for disease include:

  • Swimming Safe type of physical activity. Breathing during exercise improves blood circulation, minimizing stress on the joints.
  • Walking. A 30-minute walk at a brisk pace improves blood flow, eases stagnant foci in the lower extremities. It is not allowed to walk along the streets, in shoes unsuitable for this.
  • Cycling. The legs are constantly in motion.
cycling as an allowed sport for varicose veins

Other physical activity is provided with minor restrictions. Sports that doctors consider permissible after examination for patients with varicose veins:

  • Run It is mandatory to wear special running shoes. Specialized control over the technique is required.
  • Fitness, fitness. The doctor, the trainer will choose a range of exercises that are not forbidden.

Sports are prohibited, in which there are elements that are contraindicated for those suffering from varicose veins of the legs. Doctors impose a life ban on them:

  • meeting;
  • heavy work;
  • jumping, sports where the feet constantly hit the surface of the ground, the hall, the stadium.

Varicose veins are a contraindication to professional sports. Doctors do not allow you to engage in tiring sports even allowed.

Compression underwear

Wearing medical footwear is indicated in the postoperative period to prevent internal damage to blood vessels, to reduce the risk of developing the disease. Wear constantly in the later stages of the disease. The doctor indicates the desired degree of compression, the type of clothing:

  • Knee socks. Protects the veins in the ankle area, below the knee.
  • Socks. Help those suffering from varicose veins in the area up to the middle of the thigh.
  • Sweater. Suitable for pregnant women, those suffering from lesions of the upper sections of the femur.

It is necessary to choose a medical device strictly in size. The compression class starts at 1, goes up to 4. Last - for the more advanced stages of the disease. Compression class 0 was created to prevent the appearance of varicose veins. Models are available for both genders: male and female.


Treatment in the early stages of the disease is carried out using special drugs - venotonics. They prevent thickening of the blood, strengthen the walls of blood vessels. They have a lasting effect on the vascular system. The medicine is taken in courses as prescribed by a doctor.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed by doctors. Acetylsalicylic acid base helps dilute blood flow, eliminating stagnant foci.

Ointments, heparin-based gels are effective in the early stages. They will relieve weight, swelling, fatigue of the lower limbs.


Surgeons and phlebologists advise not to bring varicose veins into a condition where drug treatment does not help, surgery is required. If the disease progresses to the stage when deep vein damage has begun, surgical removal of the vessel is prescribed.

The operation is performed under local anesthesia in a short time. Behind him, there are no wounds, wounds. You will need to wear compression stockings for at least 4 weeks.

surgery for varicose veins in the legs

Surgeries that do not involve varicose veins are dangerous if you do not use linen for compression in the postoperative period. Varicose veins after surgery may reappear in this case.


Office workers, women, pregnant women are at risk for the disease. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to follow the basic rules of a healthy life:

  • get rid of alcohol, cigarettes;
  • walk a lot in comfortable shoes;
  • reduce the number of exercises with large weights;
  • drink plenty of clean water;
  • eat a variety of foods;
  • perform preventive care for tired feet;
  • correct vitamin deficiency.

At the first signs of heaviness in the legs, bloating, it is recommended to visit a phlebologist. He will carry out the necessary research. He will show you how to deal with a patient with varicose veins. If the person is healthy, the doctor will give a list of recommendations on how to prevent the appearance of varicose veins.